Uluslararası Anadolu Tarım, Gıda, Çevre ve Biyoloji Kongresi (TARGID) 2019

Reasons for go to Afyon?

AFYONKARAHISAR VIDEO WACTH
AFYONKARAHİSAR

HISTORY AND GEOGRAPHY

Afyonkarahisar is 1.021 meters above sea level and its surface area is 13.927 square kilometers. The climate is generally continental. Winters are cold, summers are hot and dry. Afyonkarahisar has got 18 counties including the central one. Geographically the province is in a significant position in respect to its being on a passage way in Turkey. Big cities like Ankara, Istanbul, Izmir and Antalya have links to other cities of Anatolia over Afyonkarahisar. The city is on plains between mountains generally, there are plateaus which were torn by rivers’ valleys. There are Emir Mountains along the east and northeastern boundaries, Karakus and Sultan Mountains along the southwestern boundaries and Ahir Mountains along the western boundaries of the province. Afyon Plain, Sincanlı Plain, Sandikli Plain, Col Plain and Suhut Plain are the main plains of the province.

Afyonkarahisar was a place of many civilizations since old Bronze Age. After the archeological excavations held in Kusura Mound, Kusura type cups, local urns belonging to the age of Hittites, rock temples for goddess Kybele from the age of Phrygians and local sculpture of Roman times were some of the significant foundings making the region significant in the ancient times. It is obvious that Afyonkarahisar had the same feature of being a passage way among other Anatolian cities in ancient times, too.

Because of this reason, the big wars like Ipsos (301 BC), Miryekefelon (1176), and The Great Offensive (1922) were fought in Afyonkarahisar. The foundation of Turkish Republic was laid in Afyonkarahisar.

OPIUM POPPI AND CITADEL OF AFYONKARAHISAR

Opium is the juice of the opium poppies that was used in medication. We see the opium, taking its name from Latin language, was cultivated since 2nd century. Some coins bearing the opium poppies embossed on were found in Synnada (Suhut) city ruins. Opium means juice in Latin language and it has a course of change like ofium, afiom, afion and finally afyon in the local languages through the time.

MUSEUMS

Afyonkarahisar Museum of Archeology

In the first years of Republic, with the efforts of “Asar-i Atika Muhipleri Society”, the ancient relics were gathered in Tas Medrese (Stone Madrasah). It was used as official “Museum Depot” in 1931 and was used as Museum Directorate in 1933. Suleyman Hilmi Goncer and Oguz Guner had great contributions to museum studies in Afyonkarahisar.

The institution served as an integrated museum (archeology and ethnography) between 1933 and 1970 in Tas Medrese building. In 1971 the museum was moved to a new building as Archeology Museum on Konya road roundabout. Having been found around Afyonkarahisar, the archeological relics from Stone Age and Chalcolithic Age to Roman period are exhibited in the museum in a chronological order.

Museum of Victory

This museum is in the center of Afyonkarahisar opposite to a monument park. The building of the museum was built in between 1913-1914 and used as municipality building by Mr. Esbabzade Hüseyin Tevfik, the mayor of the time. It is a two-storey masonry building and was built by Armenian masons.

Museum of Bolvadin

This museum has been at service since 1987. Bolvadin Museum of the Municipality has got many local relics and must be seen by the visitors. There are 88 pieces of archeological, 692 pieces of ethnographic historical artifacts, 63 pieces of ancient coins, 2 pieces of codex and 848 portable pieces of historical artifacts in total, waiting for their visitors.

Sultan Diwani Mevlevi Lodge

It is one of the first established mevlevi lodges in Anatolia. Its foundation goes back until the 13th century. Became center of many important activities throughout the history, the Afyonkarahisar Mevlevi Lodge is the most important lodge after the Konya Mevlevi Lodge. With regard to Mevleviyeh it became a very important center especially in the 16th century in Sultan Divani period who is one of Mevlana’s seventh generation grandsons.

Besides, the “40 Hatimed Sanative Ashura” custom which was not exist in other mevlevi lodges started here for the first time and it spreaded to many other mevlevi lodges from here.

Exposed to fire a few times the Afyonkarahisar Mevlevi Lodge, completely burned down after the great fire in 1902 and took its present aspect in 1908.

Dervish Rooms, Kitchen (Matbah) and Graveyard (Hamusan) are in its yard, the mevlevi lodge was lastly restored in 2008 and was put into service as Sultan Divani Mevlevi Lodge Museum on 30 December 2008. It gives service within the body of Afyonkarahisar Municipality.

CIVIL ARCHITECTURE

In Afyonkarahisar, the buildings belonging to the civil architecture can be found near the east and west feet of the Citadel of Afyonkarahisar. The city grows into east by people building new residences and buildings to east side of the Citadel of Afyonkarahisar.

Tac-i Ahmet, Zaviye and Yukari Pazar are among the oldest residential areas and had a great fire in 1902 after which most of the mentioned settlement places were renewed. Those places that were not affected the great fire give an original and natural picture while the places that were affected and were rebuilt has a more modern look with linear streets and lanes in a planned scheme. The latter is a protected area and the place has a rational city planning.

Spatial Condition of Houses of Afyonkarahisar

The spaces of houses of Afyonkarahisar are in specific points according to their functions. Assistant spaces are on the ground floor and the main spaces are on the upstairs. Assistant places like bathroom, kitchen, WC, laundry are at downstairs and the spaces where people eat, drink and sleep are at second floor. Some buildings were built as three-storey and the third floor that has a more than 3.20 m. height of walls is used as summer residence while they use the middle floor in winter time which has a 1.80-1.90 m. height of walls. The reason for the low walls in the middle store is to make it easier to warm up the place in winter time.

Those buildings which do not resemble each other and do not make shadow for other surrounding houses are also open to north and south winds taking the direct sun light at every possible hour of a day. This new part of Afyonkarahisar city was planned six months after the great fire in 1902 and the houses were ready to use in less than three years. 6

PHRYGIAN OPEN AIR TEMPLES

Aslankaya

Aslankaya is among Doger Town, Ihsaniye county and Uclerkaya Village. The temple has a triangular roof with a vertical front wall on a massive rock that was carved in the south surface. On the both sides of the beams of the triangular roof there are two sphinxes (lions with human head). There is Kybele in a niche at the main side. The main side is ornamented with embossed geometrical figures. The two sides of the monument were cut and a standing lion figure is placed in relief. It is dated to VII century B.C.

Kapikaya I

Kapikaya temple is among Doger Town, Ihsaniye county and Uclerkayasi Village. The temple is dated to VII century B.C. A single piece of rock was cut in the east side and two flanks were cut to make a triangular structure. In the niche that takes place in the middle of the front façade there is a standing relief of Goddess Kybele. There are four steps of a stair underneath the Kybele relief.

Kapikaya II

The second Kapikaya Temple is at the same area in a pine forest on the way to Bayramaliler Village. It was made of wood partially. The west side of a rock piece was cut and turned into a temple-like building. The upper roof part of the building wasted away in time. There is a niche on the front side and there is a standing Goddess Kybele figure inside of the niche in relief. There is a space in front of the monument. The building is dated to VII century B.C.

Temple of Demirli Castle

The temple is near Demirli Village in Ihsaniye County. The temple was built in the middle of Demirli Castle. There is a Kybele seat and an altar on the stairs carved on stone.

Maltas

Maltas is in Goynus Valley in Kayihan Town, Ihsaniye County. It is about 500 m away from Aslantas and Yilantas monuments. A great part of the building is underground today. The front façade is with a triangular roof and the altar is in the part that is underground now. There is a vertical scripture on the upper left side. There is a hole in the stone ground like a well behind the temple. It is dated to VII B.C. 8

PHRYGIAN ROCK THOMBS

Aslantas

Aslantas is in Goynus Valley in Kayihan Town, Ihsaniye County. The access is easy from Afyonkarahisar-Eskisehir road. There are two solemn lion figures with two baby lions under their feet at both side of the entrance. Above the door, there is a figure recalling tree of life with a sun disc extending both sides in relief. The tomb chamber has got a vault ceiling and on the left side of the chamber there is the place where they laid the dead. It is supposed that the place belongs to a great king of Phrygian dated to VII century B.C.

Yilantas

Yilantas takes place on the extension of the same rocky places at the west side of Aslantas. The triangular ceiling beams can be seen because of the damage at the monument. A lion relief and a relief of a foot managed to come until our time. At the door there is a serpent relief with Medusa head and there are two warriors attacking to the serpents on both sides. This scene cannot be seen today as the rock is upside down. It is dated to 700s B.C. while Phrygians were in Cilician plain. 9

MOUNDS AND ANCIENT CITIES

There are many historical places in the region where Afyonkarahisar takes place. There are many mounds, tumuluses, ruins, castles, citadels, monasteries, tombs and rock residences. Around those places there are tombs and tomb chambers.

The history of Afyonkarahisar extends to 3.000 B.C. People used wooden and earth as construction material. After big earthquakes, fires or alike disasters they used the material again and built up new cities on the ruins of the previous one. This happened in every 20-50 years and mounds were formed by this way. There are more than 500 mounds in Afyonkarahisar. The most famous ones are: Kusura, Sandikli, Suhut, Karacaahmet-Kocaan, Egret mounds.

City formation starts in about 1.000 B.C. in Afyonkarahisar region. Phrygians founded first city at Doger Rocks and Goynus Valley (in Ihsaniye County) for the first time. Kelenia is one of the first ancient cities.

In Hellenistic and Roman times, the cities had the power time to time. We understand this from the coins that cities issued. The cities that are able to issue coins (money) are the ones that are also able ro reign the neighborhood. In Afyonkarahisar there are 19 cities that can issue coins independently or in the name of the emperor. Apameia and Synnada are among the biggest ones. Amorium, Docimeum, Prymnessus, Cideyessus, Metropolis, Pentapolis are other significant cities. In Byzantium, Seljuk and Ottoman states money issuing was made in the center of the reign. Only in some of the cities of the mentioned states could money be issued in the name of the emperor or the state. 

ROCK SETTLEMENTS AND TOMB CHAMBERS

Rock Settlements

Human beings had to fight with nature and enemies so as to survive. They find the solution in carving cavelike houses into rocks so as to feel safe. People built chapels and temples, rooms, houses and water reservoirs into the rocks during the VII and VIII centuries. In some parts they built underground shelters to avoid their enemies. In Afyonkarahisar there are rock settlements in Bayat, Ihsaniye and Incehisar Counties.

CASTLES

Avdalaz Castle

The castle is in Ihsaniye County. It was carved into tuff rock. The castle is a multi floored structure with many rooms in it. There is a big reservoir in the upper entrance of the massive rock and there are chambers of tombs in the underside of the rock. The castle was built and used for defense.

 

 

Asar Castle

About four km. west of Bayat County, on the feet of Koroglu Mountain, there is a great conic block of rock and the edges of this block was surrounded by a wall in the places that are convenient to pass. There are some buildings for religious and administrative purposes and a reservoir with vault. There are rock settlements on the east side of the castle. There is a chapel and some loopholes on the same side of the castle. The castle was in use in Roman and Byzantium ages for the purpose of spotting and defence.

Bayramaliler Castle

The castle is on the right side of the road on the way to Saricaova Village on the Northeast of Bayramaliler Village, Ihsaniye County. The area is a settlement named Leonto Kefal in times of Byzantium. It is a significant castle built on a natural hill with surrounding walls. There are many ruins of buildings and some rock settlements around the feet of the hill with access to the main castle. It is obvious that the castle is a significant center of defense.

Afyonkarahisar Castle

This castle is on a natural 226 meters high volcanic rock in the center of Afyonkarahisar. The castle was used by Hittite Emperor Murshil II during Arzava Battle as a stronghold in 1350 B.C. The castle was called “Hapanuva” in former times. In Byzantium and Roman times they called the castle “Akroenos” and after Seljuk reign the name was changed into “Karahisar”. In the castle, there are cultural relics of Phrygian period that reigned in Anatolia between 1.200 and 700 B.C. There are shrines for Mother Goddess Kybele and four big reservoirs in the castle also. The castle wall was repaired by Bedrettin Gevhertas who was promoted as the castle commander by Aladdin Keykubat I, the Seljuk Sultan. Besides, a small mosque, famous with blue ceramics, and a small palace were built in the castle in the same period. 12

Sahipata Caravansary

This building is in the center of Sultandagi County. The building belongs to Seljuk time. On the stone plate placed on the main entrance it is written that it was built by Fahrettin Ali Bin El-Huseyin (Sahipata), one of the commanders of Izzettin Keykavus II in 1249. There are rooms and places for camels in the court yard led by a stone portal. There is a masjid (small mosque) with four columns and archs in the middle of the court yard. The wintery part of the building was placed on 16 columns and covered with vaults.

Cay Tashan

The building is a piece of Tas (stone) Social Complex that was built in Seljuk period. It was built in 1278 by Architecture Ogul Bey with order of Yakupoglu Yusuf Bey, during reign of Giyaseddin Keyhusrev III. The courtyard of the public house was ruined but the enclosed space is still unharmed. The building has a plan of castle and was built on 12 columns covered with vaults. The outer wall has supports that give the building a kind of castle appearance. Cay Tashan is unique in Anatolia with this feature.

Egret (Anitkaya) Caravansary

It is in the central Anitkaya Resort. The caravansary was built by Germiyanogullari in 14th century. The edges of stone gate were strengthened by double columns. There are three yards in the stone-made building and the middle one is the biggest one of all. Double row of columns were covered with vaults.

Doger Caravansary

The caravansary is in Doger Town in Ihsaniye County. It is an Ottoman structure constructed in period of Sultan Murat II. The building has got two parts: one is for camels and the other is for people to have a rest. The first part is single-floor with stone walls and ceiling. The second part is two-storied with stone outside and ceiling. There are four arches at the ground floor and at the second floor there are rooms with windows, fire places and domes.

Afyonkarahisar Tashan

Tashan is in the center of Afyonkarahisar and was built by the order of Kadi (Islamic Judge) Abdullah Efendi in the middle of 17th century. It is a masonry and stone building with two floors. The main entrance in the south side it has got two doors and a big arch. All the rooms in Tashan are open-top and faced to the yard. 14

TURKISH BATHS

Imaret Hamam (Turkish bath)

This Turkish bath is in the Centrum of Afyonkarahisar. It is a part of a social complex which was built by architect Ayaz Aga by order of Gedik Ahmet Pasa in 1475. The building is a first period piece of Ottoman architecture. It was made of stone and it has a double bath feature. The building is one meter below the street level. The building was fixed by Turkish authorities in 1965 and had its current appearance.

Kasım Pasa (Alaca) Hamam

This Turkish bath is in the Centrum of Afyonkarahisar. In the archieves it is written that the building was constructed by architecture Ilyas Aga by order of Kasim Pasa in 1475. The building had a repair in 1967 and had its latest appearance. The building is hidden behind the shops alongside the street. This Turkish bath has also the double bath feature. 15

Millet Hamam

This Turkish bath is on Hamamaraligi Street of Taciahmet Avenue in the Centrum of Afyonkarahisar. The building was constructed on an inclined ground from south to north. It is estimated that the building belongs to 18th century. Northern part was designed for men and Southern part was designed for women. It has the feature of being a double Turkish bath and it is a typical example of Ottoman architecture. The Turkish bath was repaired an put into use of public in 2005 by Afyonkarahisar authorities.

Being in the counties of Afyonkarahisar, some other Turkish Baths are of importance in terms of tourism too. These are: Tas Ambar Turkish Bath in Sultan.

SOCIAL COMPLEX BUILDINGS

Gedik Ahmet Pasa Social Complex

The building is in the city center of Afyonkarahisar and was constructed by architect Ayaz Aga by order of Gedik Ahmet Pasa, Mehmet the Conqueror’s Prime Minister, in 1472. There is a mosque in the center of the complex. There is a Turkish bath at the north east corner and there is a madrasah at the south east part of the complex. The mosque has got two main domes above mihrab and five of smaller ones above the outer place for community. The mosque is also known as Imaret Mosque among local people.

Tas (Stone) Social Complex

This building is in the center of Cay County and is from Seljuk time architecture. It was built by architect Ogul Bey by order of Yakup Oglu Yusuf Bey in 1278. The madrasah was built of bricks and ceramics but it has been changed into a mosque in time. The caravansary part has got a yard and covered area. A leopard figure was carved upon the gate as symbol of architect.

Boyali Social Complex

The complex which is in Boyali Village of Sinanpasa County is a Seljuk time building. It has a rectangular plan and has got rooms on both sides of the passage. There is a central dome supported with four columns in the center. The octagonal cupola standing in the complex is thought to belong to Kureys Bey.

Sinanpasa Social Complex

This building is in the city center of Sinanpasa City center. It was built by Ottoman minister Celaleddin Sinan Pasa in 1524. There are mosque, school, Turkish bath and public kitchen in the building. The stone made mosque is in a large yard and it has got two big and five small domes. Sinan Pasa’s tomb is in the garden of the complex.

BRIDGES

Kirk Goz Bridge

This bridge is on Akarcay (river) out of Bolvadin County. The bridge is divided into two parts as north and south. The south part was built by Byzantium Emperor Manuel Kommen in 1150 by marble and massive rock with forty arches. The bridge is on the way to Hedjaz and in XVI century it was made longer to 64 arches by Architect Sinan by order of Suleyman the Great. It is 200 meters long. 57 of the arches of the bridge managed to reach our time. Architect Sinan added a worship place and stairs to the bridge to go down to water. The bridge is made of marble and basaltic stones.

Incehisar (Koca) Bridge

This bridge was built on Incehisar creek which was known as Doueios River of Docimeum City in ancient times. The bridge was built in East-West direction on one single arch with slight slope on both sides. There are big cut stones on the surface of the bridge. There are eaves on both sides. Many pieces of ancient marble stone of Roman time were used randomly in the bridge. Local people call it “Koca” Bridge. The bridge is estimated as a late Roman piece of architecture.

Altıgoz Bridge

It is on Akarcay near the station premises in Afyonkarahisar City Center and in north of the Cirit rocks. The two rounded and the other four sharp, it has got six bays. Therefore it is called Altıgoz (Six Bays) Bridge. The riprap, made by rubble stones, was covered with huge face stones and it is seen that ingathering stones were used in patches. According to horizontal rectangular tablet on the bridge, it was made built by Oguz’s son Sabıkuddin Abul Vefa Ilyas Bey in 1209, and upon his testament it was brought into its present aspect by his son Abu Hamid Haci Mehmed bin Ilyas in 606 (1237). 18

RELIGIOUS ARCHITECTURE

Ulu Mosque

The mosque has a rectangular-like plan and was built by order of Sahipata Nusratüddin Hasan in between 1272-1277. The outer walls are made of cut stone. The linking walls are made of undressed stone. The ceiling cover used to be earth but in recent times it has been reconstructed as pyramidal dome and covered with zinc. The mosque was built on 40 wooden columns as five rows of eight groups. The capitals of the columns are carved in diamond shape. The mosque has got three doors into three main directions of North, East and West. There is a repair report on the east side door. According to this report, the mosque was repaired by order of Muinuddin Isa Bey, son of Muzafferuddin Devle Bey in 1341. There is a Turkish report plate hanged on the northern door. Mihrab is made of marble stone and there are verses from the Quran. The wooden embossed double winged pulpit was made by carpenter Emir Hac Bey. The wooden traverses were painted with madder in geometrical and herbal motifs.

Gedik Ahmet Pasa Mosque

This mosque is in the city center of Afyonkarahisar and the building is a piece of a social complex with a Turkish bath and a madrasah. The mosque was built by architect Ayaz Aga by order of Gedik Ahmet Pasa who was one of the ministers of Mehmet the Conqueror in 1472. It is also known as “Imaret Mosque”. The ceiling of the mosque is covered with two big domes. Three smaller domes cover the rooms at each side. The last community place at the north side is covered with eleven domes. There are three rows of windows on east, west, and north walls but there are two rows of windows on the wall that mihrab stands in. The windows are ornamented with colorful glasses. The inner walls of the mosque are ornamented by hand work by Abdussamed Oglu Hasan. The minaret has got single balcony being in the shape of twisted with ribs carrying blue bricks between the ribs. The mosque was repaired in 1940. The ornamentation in the mosque was remade by Ismail Hakki Altinbezer and applied by Avni Usta in accordance with the original ones.

Mevlevi (Turbe) Mosque

The mosque is in Afyonkarahisar centrum Mevlana Avenue. It is also known as “Turbe” or “Mevlevi Mosque” among local people. The main parts of the mosque are: mausoleum, special worship chamber, masjid, sherbet chamber, gathering place for sisters and place of last community. Apart from these, there are dervish rooms, “matbah-i serif ”, meeting hall, graveyard and women’s quarters. Today, meeting hall, graveyard and women’s quarters do not exist. On the door of the building there is a dervish hat in place of the scripture. The mosque has got a single balcony minaret. The mosque was ruined by a fire disaster and it has been repaired by order of Abdulhamit II in 1905. There is a big yard with a fountain surrounded by small rooms led by the stairs of northern gate. The sheikh’s house was also ruined during the fire. A part of the kitchen place is also a dervish lodge. The big dome with colorful windows makes cover of the building. Women’s quarters are on the second floor surrounded by cage-like separators allowing them to see the yard. The left side of the special worship chamber is the place for mausoleums. There are 12 sarcophaguses belonging to mevlevi sheikhs. Mevlevi fathers like Aba Pus-i Veli (one of Mevlana’s grandchildren), Sultan Divani (Mehmet Semai Celebi), Hizir Sah Celebi and Shah Ismail’s son Elkas Mirza are sleeping at this place. Architect Arif Turunc is the last person who had the building repaired. The building is used as a Mosque today. Afyonkarahisar Mevlevi house used to have a special significance among others, before the law that banished the dervish lodges passed. It was a big one with many facilities and comes in the second place after Konya. 20

NATURAL BEAUTIES

Lake Aksehir

The lake is between Afyonkarahisar and Konya and 304 sqkm of the lake is included into Afyonkarahisar. The lake is 956 m above sea level with reedy surroundings. The lake gets its water from Sultan Mountains and Lake Eber. Most of the lake is salty. There are few kinds of fish living in the lake and the place is one of the resting places for migratory flocks of birds.

Lake Eber

The lake is in the boundaries of Cay, Bolvadin and Sultandagi Counties. Surface area is 150 sqkm and 967 meters above sea level.. Lake Eber was announced as a protected natural area in the first place in 1992. The lake is contaminated and the migratory birds rarely stop there in recent times. In some parts of the lake there are few kinds of fish and water birds. 25

Lake Karamik

The lake is in the boundaries of Cay County. Surface area of the lake is 40 sqkm. The lake is 1.001 meters above sea level. Lake Karamik was announced as a protected natural area in the first place in 1993. Lake Karamik gives opportunity for reed producers and few kinds of fish live in the lake. There are also some kinds of water birds. The southern parts of the lake is covered with water lilies.

NATURAL BEAUTIES

Lake Acigol

The lake is in the boundaries of Denizli and Afyonkarahisar. Surface area of the lake is 41,5 sqkm. 20 sqkm of the lake is on the register of Basmakci and Dazkiri Counties of Afyonkarahisar. The lake is 842 m above sea level. Water of the lake contains soda and sodium sulphate and its sorts are produced from the water. The area is convenient for flamingo habitat whole year. Lake takes its water from springs of Sogut Mountain. There are small kind of fish, water turtles and frogs living in the lake. Many kinds of migratory birds stop by. Some raptors also live near the lake on the mountains of southeast. Acigol is one of the best places in terms of bird population in Turkey. Surrounding mountains and uplands are convenient for many nature sports. It is possible to reach the lake 4-5 km after Basmakci County, lake is near Asagi Akpinar Village.

Puddle Karakuyu

The puddle is in Eldere Village of Dinar County, near Afyonkarahisar-Antalya road. Surface area of the puddle is 1.099 hectares. The lake was announced as protected natural area in the first place in 1994. Water resources are enough to keep the lake unfrozen during winter time. The lake has a rich flora of plants and animals; especially the bird population is worth to see.

Flora

Afyonkarahisar takes place at the intersection of three climate zones, Inner Anatolia, Aegean and Mediterranean. Another advantage is that there are many mountains lakes and swamps give Afyonkarahisar the opportunity to reserve a large scale of habitats and so flora and vegetation become richer than many other places around. This lushness draws attention especially at Sultan Mountains, Akdag Mountain, Kumalar Mountains, Ahir MountainSogut Mountain, Maymun Mountain ad Emir Mountain. Apart from that, the lakes of Eber, Karamik and Acigol have rich vegetation. “Corylus avellana” is a kind of hazelnut and is seen in large groups at north sides of Sultan Mountains. “Corylus colurna” is another kind of hazelnut and is seen on the rocky areas of the same hills among “Taxus baccata” (yew). “Corylus colurna” has a great trunk when compared to “Taxus baccata” (yew). Some of them have 380 cm measurement taken around.

Kurtini Cave

This cave is 34 km to Sandikli county and 6 km to Kocayayla. Its entrance is covered with pine forest and it was measures that its depth was 276 meters. A stream runs in the cave in winter time. There is a medium size gallery at the bottom part. There are stalagmites and stalactites alongside interesting white and black surfaces owing to the minerals in the earth.

Buzluk Cave

The cave is at Sultandagi Mountain. It is not possible to reach the cave with automobile because there is no road. You need to take a three-hour trek among hazelnut trees and juniper bushes on a tough land until Kapikayalar (gate stones) and continue to Elmas Creek passing through Yongali. After the Creek you need to climb the rocks to reach the entrance of the cave. It is hidden behind a huge rock. The entrance is very narrow allowing to only one person to enter each time. The cave has three levels developing on a vertical course. At the entrance a cool weather welcomes you and in the second level the weather becomes chilling but at the bottom you can see the frosted places in patches. At the very bottom there is a thick ice layer and ice caps coming from the walls of the cave. The cave makes ice in July and August but in winter time it is observed that steam comes out of the cave.

Karacamal Cave

The cave is in Kocadere Area 10 km to Balcikhisar Resort, Suhut County. The entrance of the cave is large but it gets narrowed and divides into some branches as you move on. The cave has got five galleries and four of them are quite large. In spring time the last gallery is hard to be reached because of the rising water level. There are a lot of bats living in Karacamal Cave. The stalactites and water tracks on the rocks have a great contribution to the visualization of the environment when you are in the cave.

Karapinar Kuzuini Cave

This cave is higher than Karacamal Cave and 12 km to Balcikhisar Resort, Suhut County. There are narrow corridors ending up a middle large gallery. There are stalactites and stalagmites in the cave. It is the most attractive one among other caves around. 30

FAIRY CHIMNEYS

Fairy chimneys are seen on volcanic lands and their formation is due to different abrasion of the land under the floods of rain waters. The fairy chimneys have a pyramidal column appearance. Ihsaniye, Incehisar, Bayat and Bolvadin Counties are on volcanic land and there are many fairy chimneys in those areas with or without hat in various shapes. In Minareli Creek of Ozburun Town, Bolvadin County, there are quite different from the fairy chimneys of other places mentioned. There are some fairy chimneys on the slopes of Eyerli Mountain (opposite to Inpazarcık Area and Mekan Plateau).The areas having the most fairy chimneys can be seen by following the Tourism Generation Road which leads to Doger Region starting from Seydiler Resort of Incehisar County.

In Seydiler Resort of Incehisar County, there are many fairy chimneys from the small sizes to biggest ones. The place is near Afyonkarahisar-Ankara road and access is easy. Besides, there are fairy chimneys in Veliler Avenue of Karakaya Village, in front of the rock settlements that are near Agin Mountain and around Ornas Rocky Place that is in a forest 2 km before Catagil Village. The biggest fairy chimneys valleys of Afyonkarahisar can be seen in Ihsaniye County, Goynus Valley and around Demirli Village, around Bayramaliler Village, and Uclerkayasi Village and vicinity. All these places are linked to each other by land roads of 110 km and there are ancient ruins besides natural beauties. 31

HANDICRAFTS

Hairfelt Making

Hairfelt is made by putting the wool together with damp, pressure and heat. Hairfelt making has got a significant place among Afyonkarahisar handicrafts. In former times hairfelt was being made by human efforts but today there are machines to do the same job. The hairfelt bears the names of both maker and the orderer beside the colorful motifs on it. Hairfelt was in use of many people in former times but today there is not much demand for it and day by day hairfelt makers are vanishing.

Pottery

It is understood from archeological findings that pottery has been one of the hand crafts of Afyonkarahisar since 3.000 B.C. Today, there are pottery houses in Bolvadin and Sandikli Karadirek Village.

Rug and Carpet Weaving

There used to be many carpet looms at early years of republican period but today weaving has lost its significance. Rug weaving surpasses carpet weaving in recent years. Bayat County is assertive on rug weaving in the last few years. Emirdag, Sandikli, Dinar, Dazkiri and the villages around are the places where weaving is also good. In Orenkoy village of Emirdag County, there are people who weave silk carpets for commercial purposes. In Afyonkarahisar local rugs, all material is natural from threads to their paint. The rugs are named according to the motifs they bear. In the villages of Emirdag many other handicraft weaving productions are made. The motifs on the rugs have different meanings and so each rug becomes a composition. Especially the ones woven in Bayat County are worldwide famous. 37

Harness Making

Harness making is one of the oldest hand crafts in Afyonkarahisar. The needed parts for putting horses into cars are made by these hand craft masters. Some of the parts are made of buffalo leather and this leather parts are ornamented with metal details. Today, there is nearly no demand for Harness in Afyonkarahisar.

Horse and Carriage

Carriage making is a parallel branch to Harness making. In various workshops well ornamented and strong carriages are made even today in Afyonkarahisar. Metal details are used besides painting. Phaetons and carriages are sold to surrounding provinces also. Again today, demand to carriage is getting lost every day.
Forging and Coppersmith

Those two are again lost their importance today although they were great crafts in former times. Industrialization killed those two crafts. Today the forgers and coppersmiths make small things on their mills. Coppersmiths generally make souvenirs.

Straw Mat and Boyra Knitting

Boyra is another kind of Straw mat. Some old people still do the job in Sultandagi Yakasenek Resort and in Taskopru. Straw is made of some special reed grown near Lake Eber. Boyra is a little harder than Straw and used for preventing earth come out of earth ceilings of old style houses. Straw mat is used under the rugs and carpets. In recent years, demand for straw mat and boyar is getting lower.

Yemeni Making

Yemeni is a flat heeled shoe made of raw leather by hand. Especially at the beginning of the previous century there used to be many Yemeni making shops. Today there is no need for Yemeni and it is another piece of nostalgia. There are a few shops remained. Afyonkarahisar Yemeni is a special one with its way of production. A good quality pair of Yemeni can be used for two years all seasons.

Marble Cutting

The marble stones that were taken out from Afyonkarahisar and Incehisar marble mines have been famous in Anatolia and other parts of the world. It is found in archeological researches that the marble stone taken out from Afyonkarahisar were carried to Africa and Rome. Charles Texier, French traveler and archeologist, took his notes that he had seen violet ribbed white marble for the first time in Afyonkarahisar. The marble stones of Afyonkarahisar are of different quality and colors. There are more than ten colors and appearances when it comes to assort them. Marble stone is used for different aims since ancient times. In architecture, decoration, making sculpture and knickknacks as souvenirs marble was used for many purposes. 38

AFYONKARAHISAR CUISINE

In Afyonkarahisar meat and vegetable meals are in the menu together with pastries. Specific products of the region (poppies for instance) is used in the region’s meals and make them unique and Afyonkarahisar cuisine richer. When we look at cuisine of Afyonkarahisar, we see that poppies and oil of Opium poppies have great significance. Meat is used much in the meals. Animal fat is used in meals generally.

Pastries are also significant in Afyonkarahisar cuisine. Generally hashish added Lentil, potato, minced meat and cheese are used as inner material for pastries. Many vegetable meals are cooked in Afyonkarahisar cuisine but Eggplant Pie is special to Afyonkarahisar. Afyon Cream is one of the significant elements of Afyonkarahisar cuisine and it is consumed with honey or jam. Afyonkarahisar meals are rich of energy.

Sucuk (Fermented Sausage) Making

Sucuk is one of Turkish people’s oldest ways of preserving meat and is identified with Afyonkarahisar. The basic idea is to prepare meat with salt and spices. The most suitable time is October and November for producing Sucuk. There are many modern facilities producing registered marks Sucuk in Afyonkarahisar today.

Cream Making

Cream is a product of milk incident to Afyonkarahisar. It is made of Cow and Buffalo milk. Buffalo milk is better. Mass production of cream is possible today.

Turkish Delight Making

Turkish delight is a traditional delight and spread through the world from Turkey. It is made of Starch sugar and lemon juice. Some fruit extracts and nuts can be added to make different flavors. Turkish delight was brought to Afyonkarahisar in early 20th century. Today Afyonkarahisar is a trade mark.

FESTIVALS

Victory Week

This week is celebrated every year on August 26-30 with many activities. Victory Week starts with the first ceremonies held in the place where the great assault had taken start in 1922, at Kocatepe on August 26. August 27 is the day when Afyonkarahisar gained independence so there are activities in the memory of this day. On August 28, memorial service is held both at modern cemetery and at Anitkaya Soldiers’ Cemetery. On August 29, memorial service is held at Giresunlular Soldiers’ Cemetery. On August 30 the ceremonies are held first at Zafertepe and then, in Çalkoy and in Dumlupinar County. Many social and cultural activities are held during the victory week.

Industry and Trade Fair

Every year Industry and Trade Fair is organized within the Victory Week activities. At this fair, manufacturers and sellers from different parts of the country comes together.

Memorial Day of Sultan Divani and Day of Noah’s Pudding

Afyonkarahisar is the second center of Mevlevi belief. This Memorial Day is held for presenting Soltan Dİvani who is grandchild of Mevlana and to ensure Afyonkarahisar people to come together with peace and ease. Sultan Divani started the Noah’s pudding tradition in 1540 for the first time in the city. The motto is gathering people around a big pan regardless their religion and thoughts. This tradition repeated from 1540 to 1884 and in 1990 the tradition started one more time and every year people come together with many activities. 42

Cream and Independence Festivals

This festival is held to help Buffalo raising and cream production in Bolvadin County. Apart from that, the county is introduced culturally. The activities include some contests, exhibitions, panels and conferences.

Traditional Cay Sour Cherry Festival

This festival is organized and held to introduce Sour Cherry and encourage Sour Cherry production. Besides it helps people to improve their sharing and cooperation feelings. It is held in the second week of July. There are many activities during the festival.

Ayazini Tourism Festival

This festival is held to introduce the historical and natural beauties of Ayazini Resort of Ihsaniye County. The local traditions also come up to introduce and memorize. At the end of the festival, short trips are arranged to the historical places at close distances.

Iscehisar Marble Handicrafts Fesival

Iscehisar marble is worldwide famous. This festival is organized and held to introduce Incehisar marble. Marble is the focus of the festival from construction to knickknack material. Some concerts exhibitions and conferences are held during the festival.

Sultandagi Cherry Festival

The main purpose of the festival is to introduce the cherry produced in the area to a worldwide market. The festival is held at the first week of July every year. The best cherry orchard and the best quality of cherry are among the competitions made under the festival activities.

Hamza Sheikh Dede Memorial Day and Spring Festival

The memorial activities are held in Kayabelen Resort of Suhut County at the 3rd week of May every year. The program includes local cultural concerts and performances like “semah” performance.

Dinar-Marsyas Culture Art and Music Festival

The festival is organized in Dinar County by Dinar municipality on May 5-6-7 every year. Among the activities there are “International Side Flute Contest”, classical music concert and Turkish folk music concerts.

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